Professor Antonio Paris Hear of the Milky Way. Photo from NGC. The Heart of the Milky Way Galaxy. Image from National Geographic Cloud bands clearly visible on Jupiter A map of deviations in gravity from a perfectly smooth, idealized Earth. Credit: Wikipedia Scottish Highlands Granite dykes, showing baked margins and host rock assimilation. http://www.geologyrocks.co.uk/ Image courtesy of Nature.com An Esquel meteorite of the pallasite type. Image from Smithsonian Earth. Image from NOAA. Planetary geologist and NASA astronaut Harrison “Jack” Schmitt collecting lunar samples during the Apollo 17 mission. NASA Artist rendition of planets in our Solar System. NASA The habitable zone of Gliese 581 compared with our Solar System’s habitable zone. NASA This artist’s concept illustrates a young, red dwarf star surrounded by three planets. NASA An artist’s impression of the binary star system HD 98800 B, which is surrounded by a disc that may be in the process of forming planets. HD 98800 B is itself a member of a quadruple star system. NASA An artist’s concept of a protoplanetary disk. Image from Smithsonian An artist’s concept of a planetary system. Source Wikipedia Photograph from Apollo 15 orbital unit of the rilles in the vicinity of the crater Aristarchus on the Moon. The arrangement of the two valleys is very similar, although one third the size, to Great Hungarian Plain rivers Danube and Tisza. Photo from NASA Vertical relief in Neptune’s bright cloud streaks. NASA Infrared image of the dark side of the rings. NASA This cut-away illustrates a model of the interior of Jupiter, with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of liquid metallic hydrogen. Image from NASA Close-up of swirling clouds around Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. NASA Natural color view of Saturn’s rings. Image from NASA. Icy Dione, one of Saturn’s moons, enriched by the tranquil gold and blue hues of Saturn. NASA The presumed distance of the Oort cloud compared to the rest of the Solar System. Image courtesy of Wikipedia. These artist’s concepts show some of the best known objects in the Kuiper Belt in comparison to Earth. It was labeled before the objects got their official names. Image from NASA Top down view of Olympus Mons. NASA Panorama of Gusev crater, where Spirit rover examined volcanic basalts. NASA Closeup of Tintina rock, showing a bright white feature. (Photo from NASA) Exposure of silica-rich dust uncovered by the Spirit rover. Photo from NASA. The Oort Cloud. NASA The interior of the Sun. Credit: Kelvin Song Hubble image of Neptune. Credit: NASA The Oort Cloud. NASA Gibeon Meteorite in its original form. Credit: http://www.towercrystals.com Meteor. Photo courtesy of Scienceblog.com Pluto, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope (Credit: NASA). Comet Hale Bopp. Photo Credit: Science Daily Image of Jupitor. Credit: NASA Image of Uranus. Credit: NASA Image of Neptune. Credit: NASA Image of Mars. Credit: Smthsonian Image of Earth. Credit: NASA Image of Venus. Credit: NASA Image of Mercury. Credit: Universe Today Image of the Sun. Credit: NASA The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial body is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. Credit: Cora Skywalkers Blog MACS0647-JD is a candidate for the farthest known galaxy from Earth. Image from NASA. A diagram depicting 12ly. Credit: Atlas of the Universe. Using Parallax to measure a star as seen from earth 6 months aparts. Credit: ESA Science & Technology: Transits of Venus across the face of the Sun were, for a long time, the best method of measuring the astronomical unit, despite the difficulties and the rarity of observations. Source: NASA Chandra X-Ray Observatory in Space. NASA Image. Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Gamma Ray Telescope Array System . Image courtesy of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory The cosmic distance ladder is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects. Credit: SciTech Daily A 6′ wide view of the Crab nebula supernova remnant, viewed at different wavelengths of light by various telescopes. Credit: NASA The Arecibo Radio Telescope in Puerto Rico. Image courtesy of SETI. Typical optical refractor telescope image by Jim Mills from Fotolia.com The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in June 2001. The height of the observatory above the Atlantic Ocean ensures that it is almost always above the clouds. Image courtesy of Wikipedia. A size comparison between known planets, our sun, and other stars. A white dwarf star in orbit around Sirius (artist’s impression). NASA image Simulated view of a black hole (center) in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Note the gravitational lensing effect, which produces two enlarged but highly distorted views of the Cloud. Across the top, the Milky Way disk appears distorted into an arc. A very small dense star that is composed mostly of tightly-packed neutrons (neutronium). Simulated view of a black hole (center) in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Note the gravitational lensing effect, which produces two enlarged but highly distorted views of the Cloud. Across the top, the Milky Way disk appears distorted into an arc. The Star Explodes! The Crab Nebula, remnants of a supernova that was first observed around 1050 AD. Star Birth: Carina Nebula, a sprawling and complex Escher-like region of gas and dust about 7500 light years away. It’s the scene of chaotic star birth and death, slammed and reslammed by winds from stars being born and others busy blowing up. Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star approaching the end of its life cycle. A typical star chart found on many astronomy magazine, newspapers, and almanacs. Today, many astronomers use a wide variety of digital star charts, including Sky Safari. False-color imagery of the Sun, a G-type main-sequence star, the closest to Earth. A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit (Image courtesy of http://kaelouise.com/ The detailed, all-sky picture of the infant universe created from nine years of WMAP data. The image reveals 13.77 billion year old temperature fluctuations (shown as color differences) that correspond to the seeds that grew to become the galaxies. The signal from our galaxy was subtracted using the multi-frequency data. This image shows a temperature range of ± 200 microKelvin. Credit: NASA / WMAP Science Team The Celestial Sphere Early astronomers showed initiative and advanced thinking in their conclusions on eclipses. Gamma-rays detected by Fermi’s LAT show that the remnant of Tycho’s supernova shines in the highest-energy form of light. This portrait of the shattered star includes gamma rays (magenta), X-rays (yellow, green, and blue), infrared (red) and optical data. (Credit: Gamma ray, NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration; X-ray, NASA/CXC/SAO; Infrared, NASA/JPL-Caltech; Optical, MPIA, Calar Alto, O. Krause et al. and DSS) A poster of the planets to scale (from true color NASA images). Curtesy of Alma College. The Andromeda Galaxy is a spiral galaxy approximately 2.5 million light-years from Earth in the Andromeda constellation. Vast clouds of hot gas are sloshing back and forth in Abell 2052, a galaxy cluster located about 480 million light years from Earth. X-ray data (blue) from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory shows the hot gas in this dynamic system, and optical data (gold) from the Very Large Telescope shows the galaxies. Multi-wavelength image of the Crab Nebula, seen in x-rays (Chandra), optical (Hubble) and infrared (Spitzer). X-RAY: NASA/CXC/SAO/F.SEWARD; OPTICAL: NASA/ESA/ASU/J.HESTER & A.LOLL; INFRARED: NASA/JPL-CALTECH/UNIV. MINN./R.GEHRZ) Both professional and amateur astronomers have made significant contributions to science. The visible light (left) and infrared (right) images of the constellation Orion shown here are of the exact same area. These images dramatically illustrate how features that cannot be seen in visible light show up very brightly in the infrared. (Credits: Visible light image: Akira Fujii; Infrared image: Infrared Astronomical Satellite ) The Horsehead Nebula. This photo was taken on the morning of October 5, 2000, at Kitt Peak Observatory as part of the Advanced Observing Program. The telescope was a Meade 16 inch LX200 (f/6.3) with an SBIG ST-8E CCD camera. The Very Large Array (VLA) is a radio astronomy observatory located west of Socorro, New Mexico. The VLA has made key observations of black holes and protoplanetary disks around young stars, discovered magnetic filaments and traced complex gas motions at the Milky Way’s center, probed the Universe’s cosmological parameters, and provided new knowledge about the physical mechanisms that produce radio emission. Radio Astronomy: The Very Large Array in New Mexico, an example of a radio telescope. A star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud, an irregular galaxy.